Happy Thanksgiving – Photos From Target Health and Our Readers

 

Thanksgiving is a holiday in the United States where all citizens give thanks for the opportunity to live in one of the most-free countries in the world, striving toward equality for all. Our clients and employees come from all over the world and we are proud of our diversity. Our Thanksgiving wish is that the whole world become a more peaceful place.

 

ON TARGET is the newsletter of Target Health Inc., a NYC – based, full – service, contract research organization (eCRO), providing strategic planning, regulatory affairs, clinical research, data management, biostatistics, medical writing and software services to the pharmaceutical and device industries, including the paperless clinical trial.

 

For more information about Target Health contact Warren Pearlson (212 – 681 – 2100 ext. 104). For additional information about software tools for paperless clinical trials, please also feel free to contact Dr. Jules T. Mitchel or Ms. Joyce Hays. The Target Health software tools are designed to partner with both CROs and Sponsors. Please visit the Target Health Website.

 

Joyce Hays, Founder and Editor in Chief of On Target

Jules Mitchel, Editor

 

Albuquerque, New Mexico Balloon Festival (Cheryl Feiner)

 

Our good friend and colleague Cheryl Feiner (Pfizer) went to Albuquerque, NM for the annual International Balloon Fiesta. Here is one of the many photos Cheryl shared.

 

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A Gift From Our Colleagues From the Chinese SFDA

 

Several weeks ago Target Health made presentations to representatives of the SFDA from Shandong Province.  Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history from the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River and served as a pivotal cultural and religious site for Taoism, Chinese Buddhism, and Confucianism. Shandong’s Mount Tai is the most revered mountain of Taoism and one of the world’s sites with the longest history of continuous religious worship.

 

Our colleagues were kind enough to share a gift of a calligraphy based on the following saying from Confucius “With virtue there is no solitude, only companionship.” Chapter 4, Analects of Confucius.

 

 

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Flowering Corn Plant – Target Health, NYC

 

Several times a year, there is a fantastic aroma that wafts through our corporate offices on the 23rd and 24th Floors at 261 Madison Avenue. Here is what it looks like. Hard to capture the fantastic aroma.

 

 

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©Target Health Inc. 2015

Moonrise in Manhattan

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©Target Health Inc. 2015

Date:
November 23, 2015

Source:
University of Chicago

Summary:
The serious dangers of loneliness have long been known, but the cellular mechanisms by which loneliness causes adverse health outcomes have not been well understood. Now, a team of researchers has released a study shedding new light on how loneliness triggers physiological responses that can ultimately make us sick.

 

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New research shows that loneliness leads to fight-or-flight stress signaling, which can ultimately affect the production of white blood cells.
Credit: © kolotype / Fotolia

 

 

Loneliness is more than a feeling: For older adults, perceived social isolation is a major health risk that can increase the risk of premature death by 14 percent.

Researchers have long known the dangers of loneliness, but the cellular mechanisms by which loneliness causes adverse health outcomes have not been well understood. Now a team of researchers, including UChicago psychologist and leading loneliness expert John Cacioppo, has released a study shedding new light on how loneliness triggers physiological responses that can ultimately make us sick.

The paper, which appears Nov. 23 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, shows that loneliness leads to fight-or-flight stress signaling, which can ultimately affect the production of white blood cells.

Along with Cacioppo, the research team includes Steven W. Cole of UCLA and John P. Capitanio of the California National Primate Research Center at the University of California, Davis. The study examined loneliness in both humans and rhesus macaques, a highly social primate species.

Previous research from this group had identified a link between loneliness and a phenomenon they called “conserved transcriptional response to adversity” or CTRA. This response is characterized by an increased expression of genes involved in inflammation and a decreased expression of genes involved in antiviral responses. Essentially, lonely people had a less effective immune response and more inflammation than non-lonely people.

For the current study, the team examined gene expression in leukocytes, cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against bacteria and viruses.

As expected, the leukocytes of lonely humans and macaques showed the effects of CTRA–an increased expression of genes involved in inflammation and a decreased expression of genes involved in antiviral responses. But the study also revealed several important new pieces of information about loneliness’ effect on the body.

First, the researchers found that loneliness predicted future CTRA gene expression measured a year or more later. Interestingly, CTRA gene expression also predicted loneliness measured a year or more later. Leukocyte gene expression and loneliness appear to have a reciprocal relationship, suggesting that each can help propagate the other over time. These results were specific to loneliness and could not be explained by depression, stress or social support.

Next, the team investigated the cellular processes linking social experience to CTRA gene expression in rhesus macaque monkeys at the California National Primate Research Center, which had been behaviorally classified as high in perceived social isolation. Like the lonely humans, the “lonely like” monkeys showed higher CTRA activity. They also showed higher levels of the fight-or-flight neurotransmitter, norepinephrine.

Previous research has found that norepinephrine can stimulate blood stem cells in bone marrow to make more of a particular kind of immune cell–an immature monocyte that shows high levels of inflammatory gene expression and low levels of antiviral gene expression. Both lonely humans and “lonely like” monkeys showed higher levels of monocytes in their blood.

More detailed studies of the monkey white blood cells found that this difference stemmed from expansion of the pool of immature monocytes. In an additional study, monkeys repeatedly exposed to mildly stressful social conditions (unfamiliar cage-mates) also showed increases in immature monocyte levels. These analyses have finally identified one reason why CTRA gene expression is amplified in the white blood cell pool: increased output of immature monocytes.

Finally, the researchers determined that this monocyte-related CTRA shift had real consequences for health. In a monkey model of viral infection, the impaired antiviral gene expression in “lonely like” monkeys allowed simian immunodeficiency virus (the monkey version of HIV) to grow faster in both blood and brain.

Taken together, these findings support a mechanistic model in which loneliness results in fight-or-flight stress signaling, which increases the production of immature monocytes, leading to up-regulation of inflammatory genes and impaired anti-viral responses. The “danger signals” activated in the brain by loneliness ultimately affect the production of white blood cells. The resulting shift in monocyte output may both propagate loneliness and contribute to its associated health risks.

The team plans to continue research on how loneliness leads to poor health outcomes and how these effects can be prevented in older adults.


Story Source:

The above post is reprinted from materials provided byUniversity of Chicago. The original item was written by Susie Allen. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Steven W. Cole, John P. Capitanio, Katie Chun, Jesusa M. G. Arevalo, Jeffrey Ma, John T. Cacioppo. Myeloid differentiation architecture of leukocyte transcriptome dynamics in perceived social isolation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2015; 201514249 DOI:10.1073/pnas.1514249112

 

Source: University of Chicago. “Loneliness triggers cellular changes that can cause illness, study shows.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 23 November 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151123201925.htm>.

Study tracks gene changes during the introduction of farming in Europe

Date:
November 23, 2015

Source:
Harvard Medical School

Summary:
Genomic analysis of ancient human remains identifies specific genes that changed during and after the transition in Europe from hunting and gathering to farming about 8,500 years ago. Many of the genes are associated with height, immunity, lactose digestion, light skin pigmentation, blue eye color and celiac disease risk.

 

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Ancient DNA can provide insight into when humans acquired the adaptations seen in our genomes today.
Credit: Image courtesy of Harvard Medical School

 

 

The introduction of agriculture into Europe about 8,500 years ago changed the way people lived right down to their DNA.

Until recently, scientists could try to understand the way humans adapted genetically to changes that occurred thousands of years ago only by looking at DNA variation in today’s populations. But our modern genomes contain mere echoes of the past that can’t be connected to specific events.

Now, an international team reports in Nature that researchers can see how natural selection happened by analyzing ancient human DNA.

“It allows us to put a time and date on selection and to directly associate selection with specific environmental changes, in this case the development of agriculture and the expansion of the first farmers into Europe,” said Iain Mathieson, a research fellow in genetics at Harvard Medical School and first author of the study.

By taking advantage of better DNA extraction techniques and amassing what is to date the largest collection of genome-wide datasets from ancient human remains, the team was able to identify specific genes that changed during and after the transition from hunting and gathering to farming.

Many of the variants occurred on or near genes that have been associated with height, the ability to digest lactose in adulthood, fatty acid metabolism, vitamin D levels, light skin pigmentation and blue eye color. Two variants appear on genes that have been linked to higher risk of celiac disease but that may have been important in adapting to an early agricultural diet.

Other variants were located on immune-associated genes, which made sense because “the Neolithic period involved an increase in population density, with people living close to one another and to domesticated animals,” said Wolfgang Haak, one of three senior authors of the study, a research fellow at the University of Adelaide and group leader in molecular anthropology at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.

“Although that finding did not come fully as a surprise,” he added, “it was great to see the selection happening in ‘real time.'”

The work also supports the idea that Europe’s first farmers came from ancient Anatolia, in what is now Turkey, and fills in more details about how ancient groups mixed and migrated.

“It’s a great mystery how present-day populations got to be the way we are today, both in terms of how our ancestors moved around and intermingled and how populations developed the adaptations that help us survive a bit better in the different environments in which we live,” said co-senior author David Reich, professor of genetics at HMS. “Now that ancient DNA is available at the genome-wide scale and in large sample sizes, we have an extraordinary new instrument for studying these questions.”

“From an archaeological perspective, it’s quite amazing,” said co-senior author Ron Pinhasi, associate professor of archaeology at University College Dublin. “The Neolithic revolution is perhaps the most important transition in human prehistory. We now have proof that people did actually go from Anatolia into Europe and brought farming with them. For more than 40 years, people thought it was impossible to answer that question.”

“Second,” he continued, “we now have evidence that genetic selection occurred along with the changes in lifestyle and demography, and that selection continued to happen following the transition.”

Prying more from the past

Members of the current team and others have used ancient DNA in the past few years to learn about Neanderthals and the genes they passed to humans, identify ancestors of present-day Europeans, trace migrations into the Americas and probe the roots of Indo-European languages. Studying natural selection, however, remained out of reach because it required more ancient genomes than were available.

“In the past year, we’ve had a super-exponential rise in the number of ancient samples we can study on a genome scale,” said Reich, who is also an associate member of the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT and a Howard Hughes Medical Investigator. “In September 2014, we had 10 individuals. In this study, we have 230.”

The DNA came from the remains of people who lived between 3,000 and 8,500 years ago at different sites across what is now Europe, Siberia and Turkey. That time span provided snapshots of genetic variation before, during and after the agricultural revolution in Europe.

Among the 230 ancient individuals were 83 who hadn’t been sequenced before, including the first 26 to be gathered from the eastern Mediterranean, where warm conditions usually cause DNA to degrade.

Members of the team used several technological advances to obtain and analyze the new genetic material. For example, they exploited a method pioneered by Pinhasi’s laboratory to extract DNA from a remarkably rich source: a portion of the dense, pyramid-shaped petrous bone that houses the internal auditory organs. In some cases, the bone yielded 700 times more human DNA than could be obtained from other bones, including teeth.

“That changed everything,” said Pinhasi. “Higher-quality DNA meant we could analyze many more positions on the genome, perform more complex tests and simulations, and start systematically studying allele frequency across populations.”

What made the cut

Although the authors caution that sample size remains the biggest limitation of the study, comparing the ancient genomes to one another and to those of present-day people of European ancestry revealed 12 positions on the genome where natural selection related to the introduction of farming in northern latitudes appears to have happened.

“Some of those specific traits have been studied before,” said Reich. “This work with ancient DNA enriches our understanding of those traits and when they appeared.”

Besides the adaptations that appear to be related to diet, pigmentation, immunity and height, the possible selective pressure on other variants was less clear.

“We can guess by looking at the function of the gene, but our power is limited,” said Mathieson. “It’s quite frustrating.”

It’s too early to tell whether some of the variants were themselves selected for or whether they hitched a ride with a nearby beneficial gene. The question pertains especially to variants that seem to be disadvantageous, like increased disease risk.

Being able to look at numerous positions across the genome also allowed the team to examine complex traits for the first time in ancient DNA.

“We can see the evolution of height across time,” said Mathieson.

Researchers had noticed that people from southern Europe tend to be shorter than those from northern Europe. The new study suggests that the height differential arises both from people in the north having more ancestry from Eurasian steppe populations, who seem to have been taller, and people in the south having more ancestry from Neolithic and Chalcolithic groups from the Iberian peninsula, who seem to have been shorter.

The team wasn’t able to draw conclusions about the other complex traits it investigated: body mass index, waist-hip ratio, type 2 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and lipid levels.

Reich, for one, hopes researchers will one day have thousands of ancient genomes to analyze. He would also like to see this type of study applied to non-European populations and even to other species.

“It will be interesting to study selection in domesticated animals and to see if there is coevolution between them and the people who were domesticating them,” said Mathieson.

###

This study was supported by U.S. National Science Foundation HOMINID grant BCS-1032255, U.S. National Institutes of Health grant GM100233, European Research Council (ERC) starting grants ADNABIOARC (263441) and APGREID, an Irish Research Council ERC support grant, the Irish Research Council for Humanities and Social Sciences, the Australian Research Council (DP130102158), the German Research Foundation (DFG) grants KR 4015/1-1 and AL 287/14-1, the Human Frontier Science Program (LT001095/2014-L), the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (5-06-01916), the Russian Foundation for the Humanities (15-11-63008), and a state grant from the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (#33.1195.2014/k).

About Harvard Medical School

Harvard Medical School has more than 7,500 full-time faculty working in 10 academic departments located at the School’s Boston campus or in hospital-based clinical departments at 15 Harvard-affiliated teaching hospitals and research institutes: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Children’s Hospital, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Cambridge Health Alliance, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Hebrew SeniorLife, Joslin Diabetes Center, Judge Baker Children’s Center, Mass. Eye and Ear/Schepens Eye Research Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, McLean Hospital, Mount Auburn Hospital, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and VA Boston Healthcare System.

About University College Dublin

Founded in 1854, University College Dublin is Ireland’s largest university. It has over 32,000 students from some 120 countries around the world. Almost one quarter of its 1,700 academic staff are international.

It is the leading national institution for European research funding. Perhaps the best known of all its graduates is James Joyce, the author of Ulysses, who completed his Bachelor of Arts at the university in 1902.

UCD’s vision for 2020 is built on a foundation of excellent research, delivering answers to challenges of global significance in which UCD and Ireland can play a leading role.


Story Source:

The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Harvard Medical School. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Iain Mathieson, Iosif Lazaridis, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Nick Patterson, Songül Alpaslan Roodenberg, Eadaoin Harney, Kristin Stewardson, Daniel Fernandes, Mario Novak, Kendra Sirak, Cristina Gamba, Eppie R. Jones, Bastien Llamas, Stanislav Dryomov, Joseph Pickrell, Juan Luís Arsuaga, José María Bermúdez de Castro, Eudald Carbonell, Fokke Gerritsen, Aleksandr Khokhlov, Pavel Kuznetsov, Marina Lozano, Harald Meller, Oleg Mochalov, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Manuel A. Rojo Guerra, Jacob Roodenberg, Josep Maria Vergès, Johannes Krause, Alan Cooper, Kurt W. Alt, Dorcas Brown, David Anthony, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Wolfgang Haak, Ron Pinhasi, David Reich. Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians. Nature, 2015; DOI:10.1038/nature16152

 

Source: Harvard Medical School. “How the introduction of farming changed the human genome: Study tracks gene changes during the introduction of farming in Europe.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 23 November 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151123202631.htm>.

Date:
November 20, 2015

Source:
Cell Press

Summary:
Although today’s pacemakers are lifesaving electronic devices, they are limited by their artificial nature. For example, the devices require regular maintenance, must be replaced periodically, and can only approximate the natural regulation of a heartbeat. A new article highlights the promise and limitations of new methods based on stem cell and reprogramming technologies to generate biological pacemakers that might one day replace electronic pacemakers.

 

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This graphic shows examples of individual pacemaker cells.
Credit: Courtesy of Vasanth Vedantham.

 

 

Although today’s pacemakers are lifesaving electronic devices, they are limited by their artificial nature. For example, their parts can fail or they can become infected. In addition, the devices require regular maintenance, must be replaced periodically, and can only approximate the natural regulation of a heartbeat. A Review article published on November 20 in Trends in Molecular Medicine highlights the promise and limitations of new methods based on stem cell and reprogramming technologies to generate biological pacemakers that might one day replace electronic pacemakers.

“Theoretically, biological pacemakers, which are composed of electrically active cells that can functionally integrate with the heart, could provide natural heart rhythm regulation without the need for indwelling hardware,” says author Vasanth Vedantham, of the University of California, San Francisco.

To create biological pacemakers, one approach is to coax stem cells to become specialized cardiac pacemaker cells that are normally found within the sinoatrial node of the heart. These are then transplanted into an ailing heart to restore pacemaking function. Another promising approach is to directly reprogram supporting cells, already present in the heart–for instance, fibroblasts (e.g., connective tissue)–and convert them into pacemaker cells to restore cardiac function.

Vedantham states that initial large animal studies on biological pacemakers have generated promising results but that much more work remains ahead before biological pacing can be actually considered a clinically viable therapy. For example, researchers need to better understand the mechanisms controlling the development and maintenance of pacemaker cells in the sinoatrial node, just as they must develop ways to compare experimental biological pacemaker tissue with bona fide sinoatrial node tissue. Also, scientists will need to improve the methods used to deliver cells to desired locations within the heart, as well as the recovery of specific individual cells for detailed characterization and functional analyses.

“Biological pacemakers must meet a very high standard of performance to supplant electronic pacemakers,” Vedantham says. “Because even a few seconds without a heartbeat can lead to serious consequences, a biological pacemaker would need to exhibit very robust and reliable performance. It remains to be determined whether this will be technically feasible. Despite such challenges, the field is poised for rapid progress over the next few years,” he adds.


Story Source:

The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Cell Press. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Vasanth Vedantham. New Approaches to Biological Pacemakers: Links to Sinoatrial Node Development. Trends in Molecular Medicine, 2015; DOI: 10.1016/j.molmed.2015.10.002

 

Source: Cell Press. “Can stem cell technology be harnessed to generate biological pacemakers?.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 20 November 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151120182815.htm>.

Target e*Informed Consent (Target e*ICF™)

 

The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) is very active supporting the modernization of the informed consent process. Part of this effort is utilizing an electronic informed consent integrated with electronic signatures. Some solutions include the use of stand-alone dedicated tablets and others are web-based. As we live in a modern world where electronic devices are somewhat ubiquitous, there is a push to BYOD (bring your own device). As a result, we created a web-based solution fully integrated with Target e*CRF®.

 

A global clinical trial will begin in January with 3 languages. Study participants will first be registered in Target e*CRF® by the clinical site. Subjects will then be able to read the informed consent page by page, ask questions on line, receive answers online, and then sign online once the subject confirms that all questions have been answered. Authorized user at the clinical site will then sign the electronic Informed Consent and only then can the clinical site enter data. For flexibility, the system is also designed to allow for confirmation of the signing of a paper informed consent.

 

Target e*ICF™ can be used as a stand-alone application or fully integrated with Target e*CRF®. The benefits are huge and introductory programs are available.

 

Autumn In NY – View Form the 24th Floor at Target Health’s Corporate Headquarters

 

 

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Autumn in NYC © Target Health Inc. 2015

 

ON TARGET is the newsletter of Target Health Inc., a NYC – based, full – service, contract research organization (eCRO), providing strategic planning, regulatory affairs, clinical research, data management, biostatistics, medical writing and software services to the pharmaceutical and device industries, including the paperless clinical trial.

 

For more information about Target Health contact Warren Pearlson (212 – 681 – 2100 ext. 104). For additional information about software tools for paperless clinical trials, please also feel free to contact Dr. Jules T. Mitchel or Ms. Joyce Hays. The Target Health software tools are designed to partner with both CROs and Sponsors. Please visit the Target Health Website.

 

Joyce Hays, Founder and Editor in Chief of On Target

Jules Mitchel, Editor

 

QUIZ

Filed Under News | Leave a Comment

Non-Surgical Method to Reverse Cataracts – HUGE !

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Photo Credit: MedPageToday, PHANIE/ALAMY

 

As reported last week in Science, a naturally occurring steroid has dissolved cataracts in mice, a potentially “game changing“ development in the search for a nonsurgical treatment of the eye disease, cataracts. A new study using steroid eye 1) ___ to reverse cataracts could offer an alternative to invasive surgical treatments. The steroid eye drops were shown to reverse cataracts in 2) ___.

 

More than half of Americans over the age of 70 have cataracts, caused by clumps of proteins collecting in the eye lens. At present, the only way to remove them is 3) ___, an unavailable or unaffordable option for many of the 20 million people worldwide who are blinded by the condition. Now, a new study in mice suggests eye drops made with a naturally occurring steroid could reverse cataracts by teasing apart the protein clumps. “This is a game changer in the treatment of cataracts,“ says Roy Quinlan, a molecular biologist at Durham University in the United Kingdom who was not part of the study. “It takes decades for the 4) ___ to get to that point, so if you can reverse that by a few drops in the eye over a couple of weeks, that’s amazing.“

 

The proteins that make up the human lens are among the oldest in the body, forming at about 4 weeks after fertilization. The majority are crystallins, a family of proteins that allow the eye to focus and keep the lens 5) ___. Two of the most abundant crystallins, CRYAA and CRYAB, are produced in response to stress or injury. They act as chaperones, identifying and binding to damaged and misfolded proteins in the lens, preventing them from aggregating. But over the years, as damaged proteins accumulate in the lens, these chaperones become overwhelmed. The mutated proteins then clump together, blocking light and producing the tell-tale cloudiness of cataracts.

 

To treat cataracts without surgery – which is out of reach for many patients in developing nations – researchers have looked to 6) ___ treatments. Although boosting the function of CRYAA and CRYAB seems to be a good target, developing a therapeutic has been challenging. Most drugs that act on disease-related proteins work by changing how the protein functions, something scientists can measure by monitoring the protein’s enzymatic activity. CRYAA, CRYAB, and similar proteins are known as “undruggable“ because their activity can’t be 7) ___, says Jason Gestwicki, a biochemist at the University of California (UC), San Francisco, and a senior author of the new study, published in Science. Gestwicki’s team decided to use a technology called differential scanning fluorimetry, which allows scientists to measure the temperature at which a target protein begins to melt. They analyzed CRYAA and CRYAB and discovered that in one type of hereditary cataract, CRYAB takes on a mutant form with a much higher melting temperature than its normal version. If they could find a molecule that would bind to the mutant CRYAB protein and lower its melting 8) ___ back to that of a healthy CRYAB, they speculated, CRYAB should function normally and prevent damaged proteins from clumping in the lens. They then turned to a bank of 2450 molecules that exhibited similar properties to CRYAA and CRYAB. They added molecules to the mutant CRYAB, looking for one that would stabilize their target. They settled on compound 29, a steroid found naturally in the bloodstream but not in the lens, which has no blood supply. To test the concept, mice with age-related and hereditary cataracts received drops in the right eye, whereas the left eye went untreated. After just a few weeks, the treated eye was visibly clearer. Cataract severity is measured on a scale of zero to four, with four being the worst case. On average, mice in the study had about a one-grade improvement in cataract severity after 4 weeks of treatment. This is the second study this year to find that eye drops made from a class of 9) ___ called sterols can successfully reverse cataracts. In July, researchers from UC San Diego reported that lanosterol, a steroid found in the human eye, reversed cataracts in dogs.

 

One key difference between the two studies is the way the different steroids were administered. The dog study administered the drug both by injection into the eye and eye drops. The new study used only eye drops. There’s still a lot to uncover before either study can move into clinical trials. The lens in the human eye is very different from those in mice or dogs, and neither study explains how the steroids work on cataracts. Figuring out how the treatment reverses cataracts is the team’s next task, a key step toward 10) ___ trials, which Gestwicki hopes to launch in the next year. ViewPoint Therapeutics, a biotech company he co-founded in San Francisco, California, holds the license to the technology and will launch more animal studies soon. Source: ScienceDaily.com

 

ANSWERS: 1) drops; 2) mice; 3) surgery; 4) cataracts; 5) clear; 6) drug; 7) measured; 8) temperature; 9) steroids; 10) clinical

 

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