U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NIH News
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) <http://www.nida.nih.gov/>
Embargoed for Release: Tuesday, January 18, 2011

Time-lapse technique can show cellular changes related to problems like addiction and brain tumors

Changes within deep regions of the brain can now be visualized at the cellular level, based on research on mice, which was funded by the National Institutes of Health. Published in Nature Medicine, the study used a groundbreaking technique to explore cellular-level changes over a period of weeks within deep brain regions, providing a level of detail not possible with previously available methods. The study was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), the National Cancer Institute, and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

Researchers at Stanford University used time-lapse fluorescence microendoscopy, a technique that uses miniature probes to directly visualize specific cells over a period of time, to explore structural changes that occur in neurons as a result of tumor formation and increased stimulation in the mouse brain. This could lead to greater information on how the brain adapts to changing situations, including repeated drug exposure.

“Continued drug use leads to changes in neuronal circuits that are evident well after a person stops taking an addictive substance,” said Dr. Nora D. Volkow, director of NIDA. “This study demonstrates an innovative technique that allows for a glimpse of these cellular changes within the brain regions implicated in drug reward, providing an important tool in our understanding and treatment of addiction.”

Investigators focused on two brain regions within the study, the hippocampus and striatum. The striatum, a brain region important for motor function and habit formation, is also a major target for abused drugs. Some researchers believe that a shift in activity within the striatum is at least partly responsible for the progression from voluntary drug-taking to addiction. This new technique could allow a better understanding of how these processes occur at the cellular level, leading to insights into mechanisms underlying addictive behaviors.

“The results should now allow neuroscientists to track longitudinally in the living brain the effects of drugs of abuse at the levels of neural circuitry, the individual neuron, and neuronal dendrites,” said Dr. Mark Schnitzer, corresponding author for the article. “For example, our imaging methods work well in the dorsal striatum, which we have followed with microscopic resolution over weeks in the live brain. This should permit researchers interested in the reward system to address a range of issues that were previously out of reach.”

The study can be found online at <http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm.2292>.

The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is a component of the National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIDA supports most of the world’s research on the health aspects of drug abuse and addiction. The Institute carries out a large variety of programs to inform policy and improve practice. Fact sheets on the health effects of drugs of abuse and information on NIDA research and other activities can be found on the NIDA home page at <www.drugabuse.gov>.

Abstract From Nature Medicine……………..

Time-lapse imaging of disease progression in deep brain areas using fluorescence microendoscopy

The combination of intravital microscopy and animal models of disease has propelled studies of disease mechanisms and treatments. However, many disorders afflict tissues inaccessible to light microscopy in live subjects. Here we introduce cellular-level time-lapse imaging deep within the live mammalian brain by one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy over multiple weeks. Bilateral imaging sites allowed longitudinal comparisons within individual subjects, including of normal and diseased tissues. Using this approach, we tracked CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neuron dendrites in adult mice, revealing these dendrites’ extreme stability and rare examples of their structural alterations. To illustrate disease studies, we tracked deep lying gliomas by observing tumor growth, visualizing three-dimensional vasculature structure and determining microcirculatory speeds. Average erythrocyte speeds in gliomas declined markedly as the disease advanced, notwithstanding significant increases in capillary diameters. Time-lapse microendoscopy will be applicable to studies of numerous disorders, including neurovascular, neurological, cancerous and trauma-induced conditions.

http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nm.2292.html

Note from Target Health Inc. “Be sure to look at the videos, below; they’re spectacular.”

Movies

1.                               Supplementary Video 1 (3M)

Three-dimensional image stack of hippocampal blood vessels acquired in a live mouse by two-photon microendoscopy and intravascular injection of fluorescein-dextran.

2.                               Supplementary Video 2 (8M)

Hippocampal microcirculation in normal tissue imaged by high-speed one-photon microendoscopy and intravascular injection of fluorescein-dextran.

3.                               Supplementary Video 3 (6M)

High-speed imaging of microcirculation in a hippocampal glioma using one-photon microendoscopy.

PDF files

1.                               Supplementary Text and Figures (1M)

Supplementary Figures 1–4 and Supplementary Methods

Author information

Primary authors

1. These authors contributed equally to this work.

o                                                        Robert P J Barretto,

o                                                        Tony H Ko &

o                                                        Juergen C Jung

Affiliations

1. James H. Clark Center for Biomedical Engineering & Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

o                                                        Robert P J Barretto,

o                                                        Tony H Ko,

o                                                        Juergen C Jung,

o                                                        Tammy J Wang,

o                                                        George Capps,

o                                                        Allison C Waters,

o                                                        Yaniv Ziv,

o                                                        Alessio Attardo &

o                                                        Mark J Schnitzer

2. Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

o                                                        Lawrence Recht

3. Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

o                                                        Lawrence Recht

4. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

o                                                        Mark J Schnitzer

5. CNC Program, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

o                                                        Mark J Schnitzer

Contributions

R.P.J.B. designed experiments, developed tracking of neuronal dendrites, performed the study on CA1 neuron stability, analyzed the neuronal histology data, validated the algorithm for computing erythrocyte speeds and computed relationships between vessel diameters and speeds. T.H.K. designed experiments, performed the glioma experiments and computed flow speeds and vessel sizes. J.C.J. designed experiments, developed the chronic preparation and tested it for imaging neurons and gliomas. T.J.W. and G.C. performed neuronal imaging and contributed to the glioma experiments. A.C.W. developed bilateral imaging, performed neuronal imaging and contributed to the glioma experiments. Y.Z. developed and performed striatal imaging. A.A. performed histological analyses and analyzed vessel branching ratios. L.R. designed experiments and supervised the glioma study. M.J.S. designed experiments, performed statistical testing, initiated and supervised the project and wrote the paper. All authors edited the paper.

Competing financial interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to:

01/18/11:

Dear Readers, Bloggers, we are posting this study because it might be useful information for those people, like me, who are taking an antibiotic and who also take, on a daily basis, probiotics.  I had some oral surgery last week and as a preventative, my doctor has prescribed clindamycin 150 mg every eight hours, or three times a day. This morning, I woke up with such a sick feeling in my stomach, I wondered whether the daily probiotics I take ( 3 x daily) were interacting with the clindamycin in a negative way, so I looked for answers online and found this study below.  It’s so good to know that taking all of the probiotics that I do, is exactly the right thing to keep all of my intestinal flora intact and to prevent antibiotic-associated ecological disturbances of Bacteroides fragilis in the intestine.  Hope this helps someone else.

Joyce Hays

CLINDAMYCIN HCL 150 MG CAPSULE

Identification – This medicine is a blue, oblong capsule imprinted with “93 3171” and “93 3171”.

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (2003) 52, 308–311

DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkg346

Advance Access publication 15 July 2003

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© The British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2003; all rights reserved.

Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus F19 prevent antibiotic-associated ecological disturbances of Bacteroides fragilis in the intestine

Åsa Sullivan1, Lisbeth Barkholt2 and Carl Erik Nord1*

1Department of Laboratory Medicine and 2Center for Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, Huddinge University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, SE-141 86 Stockholm, Sweden Received 12 March 2003; returned 6 May 2003; revised 27 May 2003; accepted 29 May 2003

Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the effect of clindamycin on the intestinal microflora in subjects ingesting yogurt with added probiotic microorganisms with the microflora in subjects ingesting placebo yogurt.

Materials and methods: Twenty-four healthy subjects were included in the study. All subjects received 150 mg clindamycin four times daily for 7 days and 250 mL yogurt twice daily for 14 days. Faecal samples were collected before, during and after administration of clindamycin.

Results: In the aerobic intestinal microflora, the numbers of enterococci increased after treatment in both groups, whereas other Gram-positive microorganisms decreased. In both groups, the numbers of

Escherichia coli also decreased, whereas there was a concomitant increase in numbers of other Gramnegative bacilli. In the anaerobic microflora in subjects receiving yogurt with added microorganisms, the numbers of lactobacilli and bacteroides remained at the same levels throughout the study, whereas the numbers decreased in the placebo group. Other anaerobic bacteria decreased in both groups. The minimum inhibitory concentration of clindamycin against strains of bacteroides increased in both groups during the study.

Conclusions: The probiotic microorganisms evaluated in this study prevented ecological disturbances in the numbers of intestinal Bacteroides fragilis group species during clindamycin administration.

Keywords: probiotics, lactobacilli, clindamycin

Introduction

Administration of antimicrobial agents is known to cause disruptions in the ecological balance of the normal microflora.1 Emergence of antibacterial resistance frequently originates from the dense intestinal

microbial population which predispose to the opportunities of genetic interchange through mobile genetic elements. The intestines are also an important source of eventual and potential pathogens. Clindamycin is a lincosamide  antibacterial agent that is excreted in bile, leading to high faecal concentrations, and ecological disturbances are seen mainly as a reduction in the numbers of intestinal anaerobic microorganisms.1

The use of beneficial microorganisms, or probiotics, for prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal disturbances has been advocated.

2,3 Lactic acid-producing microorganisms like Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium have most commonly been used.

Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus F19 have been used in several earlier studies.3,4 The objective of this study was to examine the impact of L. acidophilus, B. lactis and Lactobacillus F19 on ecological disturbances in the intestinal microflora in connection with administration of clindamycin.

Materials and methods

Subjects

Twenty-four healthy individuals, 17 women and seven men, were included in the study. The mean age was 28 years (range 21–48 years). None of the subjects had taken any antimicrobial agents within the 3 months preceding the study. Female subjects had a negative pregnancy test. The diet of all subjects was a normal Swedish diet. The study was carried out as a double-blind study and it was approved by the Local Ethics Committee at Huddinge University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

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*Corresponding author. Tel: +46-8-58587838; Fax: +46-8-7113918; E-mail: carl.erik.nord@labmed.ki.se

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Administration of antimicrobial agent, probiotics and placebo

All volunteers received 150 mg clindamycin capsules (Dalacin, Pharmacia, Stockholm, Sweden) four times daily for 7 days. The subjects were randomized into two groups, the active and the placebo group with reference to the probiotic product. Twelve subjects received a yogurt product (250 mL) twice daily for 14 days containing 108 cfu/mL of the strains L. acidophilus NCFB 1748, B. lactis Bb12 and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei F19 (Arla Foods, Stockholm, Sweden). Individuals in the placebo group received a similar product but with no added microorganisms (Arla Foods, Stockholm, Sweden). The administration of the antimicrobial agent and the yogurts commenced on the same day.

Compliance

Signed diary cards that were returned at the end of the study checked the compliance. Detection of the probiotic microorganisms by culture with confirmation of suspect colonies by PCR and determinations of faecal concentrations of clindamycin were further verifications of compliance.

Sampling procedures

Stool specimens were taken before the administration of clindamycin and the yogurt products (days –3 and 0), during the clindamycin administration (days 2, 5 and 7) and after the administration (days 10, 14 and 21).

Assays of clindamycin concentrations

The concentration of clindamycin in faeces was determined by the agar diffusion method. The test medium was Antibiotic Medium No 1 (Difco, Detroit, MI, USA), with pH adjusted to 8.0, and the indicator strain was Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341. The faecal samples were diluted 1:3 in phosphate buffer and centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 15 min. The samples were run in duplicate and on each plate a concomitant standard series (range 0.5–32.0 mg/L) was inoculated. The plates were incubated for 18 h at 37°C. Clindamycin concentrations were determined in relation to the diameters of the inhibition zones caused by the known concentrations from the standard series.

Microbiological procedures

The microbiological procedures were carried out according to Edlund et al.5 Different colony types were counted, isolated in pure cultures and identified to genus level according to Gram-staining, colony morphology and biochemical tests.6 Anaerobic bacteria were identified to genus level by gas–liquid chromatography of metabolites from glucose.6 The lower limit of detection was 102 cfu/g faeces.

Assays of Clostridium difficile cytotoxin production

Isolated strains of C. difficile were tested for cytotoxin production on McCoy cells and an antitoxin kit for detection of toxin B in clinical specimens (TechLab, Blacksburg, VA, USA). C. difficile CCUG 19126 was used as the reference strain.

Identification of probiotic strains

Colony-forming units exhibiting colony and Gram-stain morphology similar to the probiotic strains were analysed with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR to verify the identification.7

Antibiotic susceptibility tests

The clindamycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for strains of Bacteroides spp. and C. difficile were determined by the agar dilution method according to NCCLS document M11-A58 for anaerobic microorganisms. Control strains were Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285 and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron ATCC 29741.

Statistical analysis

The quantitative alterations were compared within groups between pretreatment (mean of days –3 and 0) and during treatment (day 7) and between pre-treatment and after treatment (day 21) and were analysed by Wilcoxon’s signed rank test for paired samples. The MIC values for each species were compared within groups between pre-treatment and day 7 and between pre-treatment and day 21 by the Mann–Whitney U-test in order to detect significant decreases in susceptibility during and after the administration period. Differences between the groups in MIC values were likewise analysed by the Mann–Whitney U-test. P values ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant and were adjusted for the multiple analysis.

Results

Concentrations of clindamycin in faeces

The mean concentration of clindamycin in faeces (mg/kg), standard deviation and range were: on day 2, 128.0, 79.8, 17.1–324.5; on day 5, 131.0, 87.2, 29.4–356.4; on day 7, 121.6, 95.0, 13.1–452.4; on day 10, 35.1, 59.7, 0–213.3; and on day 14, 0.7, 2.8, 0–13.8, respectively.

Impact of yogurt products on intestinal aerobic microflora during clindamycin administration

The numbers of enterococci increased after treatment in the placebo group (P ≤ 0.05) and in the active group, whereas other Gram-positive microorganisms decreased. In both groups, the numbers of Escherichia coli decreased, in particular in the placebo group, and a concomitant increase in other Gram-negative bacilli occurred, mainly of Klebsiella spp.

Impact of yogurt products on intestinal anaerobic microflora during clindamycin administration

In the placebo group, the numbers of lactobacilli (P < 0.05), bifidobacteria (P < 0.005), eubacteria, veillonella and bacteroides (P < 0.05) decreased during treatment and increased again at the end of the study period (Figure 1). Clostridium spp. varied in numbers, some species disappeared and new species were detected during treatment. In subjects receiving yogurt with added microorganisms, the numbers of lactobacilli and bacteroides remained stable throughout the study period, whereas numbers of bifidobacteria (P < 0.005) and veillonella (P < 0.05) decreased (Figure 2). As in the placebo group, the numbers of Clostridium spp. varied during the study. C. difficile was isolated in six samples from four subjects in the placebo group on day 14 and on days 2 and 21 respectively in two of them. In the active group, C. difficile was isolated in three samples from three subjects on days 14 and 21. Strains isolated from two subjects in the placebo group and from three subjects in the active group produced cytotoxin.

Prevalence of probiotic strains

The numbers of L. acidophilus increased initially, decreased on day 7 and increased again until day 14. Lactobacillus F19 increased and remained at the same level during the administration of yogurt. In one subject, Lactobacillus F19 was detected before the administration. B. lactis was recovered from four samples of three subjects (range log10 3.0–6.6 cfu/g faeces).

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Å. Sullivan et al.

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In vitro activity of clindamycin against strains of Bacteroides species and C. difficile isolated from the intestinal microflora

The MIC50 and MIC90 of clindamycin against strains of Bacteroides increased significantly associated with the administration in both groups (P < 0.0001). Strains with decreased susceptibility before the start of administration were detected in both groups. Differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Two of 11 C. difficile strains isolated from subjects in the placebo group and two of seven in the active group were resistant to clindamycin (MIC ≥ 8 mg/L). The remaining isolates were intermediate resistant or susceptible to clindamycin.

In vitro activity of clindamycin against the probiotic strains

The MICs of clindamycin against L. acidophilus, B. lactis and Lactobacillus F19 were 2.0, 0.032 and 0.25 mg/L, respectively. Recovered strains of L. acidophilus isolated during and after administration of clindamycin (n = 47) all had MIC values ≤ 2.0 mg/L and strains of Lactobacillus F19 (n = 65) had MIC values ≤ 0.25 mg/L, respectively.

Side effects

One subject developed diarrhoea in connection with the study and one subject reported looser stools. Both subjects belonged to the

Figure 1. Effect of clindamycin and placebo supplement administered for 7 and 14 days, respectively, on the anaerobic intestinal microflora in 12 healthy subjects. One filled diamond, one subject; line, median value for 12 subjects.

Figure 2. Effect of clindamycin and supplement containing lactic acid-producing bacteria administered for 7 and 14 days, respectively, on the anaerobic intestinal microflora in 12 healthy subjects. One filled diamond, one subject; line, median value for 12 subjects.

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active group and new stool samples were tested for C. difficile. In the sample from the first subject, no growth of C. difficile could be confirmed but the sample was cytotoxin positive. The individual was later treated with metronidazole to be relieved of the symptoms. In the second case, neither growth of C. difficile nor production of cytotoxin could be verified and the symptoms disappeared spontaneously.

Discussion

There were large individual variations in numbers of intestinal microorganisms associated with clindamycin administration, but quantitative changes in the numbers of Bacteroides species occurred to a greater extent in the placebo group than in the active group. At day 7, bacteroides was not detected in four subjects in the placebo group, whereas all subjects had detectable levels in the active group, even though two subjects had levels just above 102 cfu/g faeces. However, the supplement did not prevent colonization with C. difficile and there was also one subject that developed C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD) in the active group. Risk factors for C. difficile infections are in particular broad-spectrum antibiotics and patients older than 65 years with severe underlying diseases. The subjects in our study were rather young but still the prevalence of C. difficile was over 30%. Similar high frequencies have been observed in an earlier study on the ecological effect of clindamycin.9 We can only speculate about possible interactive events occurring between lactobacilli and bacteroides leading to specific preservation of the numbers of B. fragilis species observed in this study. Mutual beneficial interactions might have occurred as complementation in degradation of nourishments or in creating a more favourable environment. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of action of probiotic supplements.

In this study, there was a tendency for higher MIC values of clindamycin against bacteroides strains, although not statistically significant, in the active group. This phenomenon could be a reflection of the higher rate of resistance before the administration and also that bacteroides remained at higher levels in more subjects in this group.

In conclusion, the probiotic microorganisms tested in this study prevented ecological disturbances in the numbers of intestinal B. fragilis group species during clindamycin administration.

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge the skilful technical assistance of Ms Eva Sillerstrom in carrying out microbiological and biochemical analyses and of Ms Astrid Walles Granberg and Ms Janet Hakansson in carrying out the PCR analyses.

References

1. Sullivan, A., Edlund, C. & Nord, C. E. (2001). Effect of antimicrobial agents on the ecological balance of human microflora. Lancet Infectious Diseases 1, 101–14.

2. Rolfe, R. D. (2000). The role of probiotic cultures in the control of gastrointestinal health. Journal of Nutrition 130, 396S–402S.

3. Sullivan, A. & Nord, C. E. (2002). Probiotics in human infections. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 50, 625–7.

4. Crittenden, R., Saarela, M., Matto, J. et al. (2002). Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei F19: survival, ecology and safety in the human intestinal tract—a survey of feeding studies within the PRODEMO project. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease, Suppl. 3, 22–6.

5. Edlund, C., Beyer, G., Hiemer-Bau, M. et al. (2000). Comparative effects of moxifloxacin and clarithromycin on the normal intestinal microflora. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 32, 81–5.

6. Murray, P. R., Baron, E. J., Pfaller, M. A. et al. (1999). Manual of Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC, USA.

7. Bjorneholm, S., Eklow, A., Saarela, M. et al. (2002). Enumeration and identification of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei F19. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease, Suppl. 3, 7–13.

8. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. (2001). Methods for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria— Fifth Edition: Approved Standard M11-A5. NCCLS, Wayne, PA, USA.

9. Orrhage, K., Brismar, B. & Nord, C. E. (1994). Effect of supplements with Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus acidophilus on the intestinal microbiota during administration of

Take a small finger-full of each group for a healthy snack each day.

By Mehmet Oz MD and Michael Roizen MD, January 18, 2011  —  Even the most faithful of healthy eaters have occasional nutrition gaps. So here’s a snack choice that can help you stay on the Best Fed list, no matter what: nuts.

Research shows that people who eat an ounce of nuts a day enjoy better nutritional status and healthier eating patterns compared with folks on nut-free diets.

Go Nuts
Many people fail to get the recommended amounts of fiber and key nutrients in their diets, including calcium, magnesium, potassium, vitamin E, and vitamin A. But that’s not necessarily so with nut eaters. In a study, the nut lovers consumed 5 grams more fiber, 100 milligrams more magnesium, and 250 milligrams more potassium per day compared with people who never cracked a nut.)

Nutrient Booster
But that’s not all. The nut eaters also made better food choices throughout the day. They ate more fruit, whole grains, high-quality protein, and dark green and orange veggies compared with the nut abstainers, and the nut lovers also tended to do a better job of resisting unhealthful fat, alcohol, and sugar. So eat your nuts!