What is a Carbon footprint?
CO2 emission per capita per year per country
Carbon footprint is a measure of the amount of carbon dioxide, or CO2 emitted through the combustion of fossil fuels, in the case of an organization, business or enterprise, as part of their everyday operations; in the case of an individual or household, as part of their daily lives; or a product or commodity in reaching market. In materials, is essentially a measure of embodied energy, the result of life cycle analysis.
A carbon footprint is often expressed as tons of carbon dioxide or tons of carbon emitted, usually on a yearly basis. There are many versions of calculators available for carbon footprinting.
This is directly related to the amount of natural resources consumed, increasingly used or referred to as a measure of environmental impact. Carbon dioxide is recognized as a greenhouse gas of which increasing levels in the atmosphere are linked to global warming and climate change.
Activities that affect the carbon footprint of individuals
The following activities affect the carbon footprint of individuals, according to the various calculators available:
• car travel: depends on distance driven, fuel efficiency, and number of passengers per vehicle.
• Air travel: depends on distance and number of flights. Take-off and landing use large amounts of fuel, so two short flights produce more carbon than one long flight of comparative distance. However, long distance flights need to carry larger amounts of fuel which lowers their fuel efficiency. Therefore only some calculators distinguish between short and long distance flights, while others just count total miles or hours of flight. Emissions per mile and passenger are roughly equivalent to a mile and passenger in car travel.
• Boat travel: depends on distance travelled, fuel efficiency, and size of the boat. Can produce up to 8 times more carbon dioxide than an airplane traveling the same distance.
• Other motorised transport such as bus or train: normally counts for less per person than either car or air travel.
• Electricity use, if provided by non-renewable resources. Some calculators ask for figures from utility bills, while others estimate the amount from size of household and usage patterns (such as whether you leave equipment on standby overnight).
• Home heating: depends on fuel source and amount used.
• Food miles : how much food you buy from non-local sources.
• Diet: meat-eater, vegetarian or vegan, conventionally farmed foods or organic produce.
• Embodied carbon in the products and services consumed: depends on such factors as the energy intensity of the industrial process and transportation costs
• Carbon intensity in the usage of the products consumed: for example the energy efficiency rating of the freezer or computer used.
Global Warming Effects Health – Diseases Spread
Global warming is expected to extend the favorable zones for 1) ___ conveying infectious disease. Diseases such as malaria and 2) ___ ___ ___ will spread and lead to a much higher mortality. In poorer countries, this may simply lead to 3) ___ incidence of such diseases. In richer countries, where such diseases have been eliminated or kept in check by vaccination draining swamps and using 4) ___, the consequences may be felt more in 5) ___ than health terms, if greater spending on preventative measures, like vaccines, is required.